Isikhokelo esigqibeleleyo kwizitofu ezifunekayo kwiiNdwendwe zeVisa abakhenkethi kunye nabaTyelelo kwiShishini eNdiya

Ukundwendwela ndwendwela eIndiya

Abstract

Imveliso yezokhenketho eIndiya ibaluleke kakhulu kwaye yamkelwe yi Urhulumente waseIndiya. Eli shishini libala i-6.6% yelizwe Imveliso Yomhlaba Yonyango (GDP) malunga. Ukuhamba kwihlabathi liphela ukuya eIndiya kulindeleke ukuba kuphuhliswe ngesantya esiqhelekileyo sonyaka ∼8% kuyo yonke amashumi eminyaka ezayo kuzisa inani elikhulu labakhenkethi eIndiya. Kukwabalulekile oku

Inani elipheleleyo labakhenkethi kunye neendwendwe zeshishini ezifika I-Visa yaseIndiya iye yanabela kwizigidi ezili-15. Phantse iipesenti ezi-8 zeendwendwe ezifika eIndiya Funa uqwalaselo lweklinikhi ngexesha okanye emva kohambo lwabo lokuya eIndiya; ukumiselwa okuphambili zizifo ezinokuthintelwa. Abakhenkethi baseIndiya banokuhanjiswa kwizifo ezahlukeneyo ezingenakuphikiswa; Ukuhanjiswa ngamanzi, okunxulumene namanzi, kunye ne-zoonotic maladies zinokungeniswa e-India apho usulelo alukho khona.

Umbutho weMpilo weHlabathi (i-World Health) uveza ukuba wonke umntu otyelele eIndiya abakhenkethi kwilizwe jikelele kufuneka babe nolwazi olufunekayo ngokubhekisele kwimisebenzi ethile eqhubekayo. Izinto zokugula ezimiselweyo zabakhenkethi baseVisa abanokuya eIndiya kuxhomekeka kwiiparamitha ezimbalwa njengoko kubonisiwe ubudala beendwendwe zase-Visa yaseIndiya, imbali yokugoma, ukugula okhoyo, ikota, iimfuno ezifanelekileyo zokundwendwela eIndiya, Uhlobo lwe-Visa uceliwe, undwendweli ekutyeleleni amaIndiya, kunye nexesha lokutyelelwa eIndiya. Iindwendwe zeVisa zaseIndiya kufuneka ziluleke nengcali kwezonyango ukuze kubekho ixesha elaneleyo lokuzalisekiswa kwe Izicwangciso ezifanelekileyo zokungena. Nokuba ungahambela phi ukuya e-India, umntu kufuneka azi malunga nengcaciso-ntetho kwi-pathogens ezithile ezinokubangela ukugula kakhulu okanye isifo. Akukho siqinisekiso sokuba ugonyo luye lwehla okanye lwasula izifo ezininzi ezibangele ukubhubha okanye abantwana abangenakwazi ukuzenzela nto kwaye abantu abadala sele bekhulile kwiminyaka embalwa eyadlulayo. Ke ngoko, urhulumente waseIndiya ucela zonke iindwendwe eziya e-India ukuba zize ngokubona okanye ukuqhubeka I-Visa yeshishini laseNdiya kufuneka uthathe ii-antibodies ezimiselweyo kwisicwangciso ngasinye ngaphambi kokuthatha uhambo lokuya e-India.

Ukuhamba kwilizwe lonke ukuya e-India kube lula ngokwazisa nge-elektroniki Indian Visa ekwi-Intanethi (eVisa India) kule minyaka ilishumi idlulileyo, exhasa ukubaluleka kwezezimali kwaye iphuhlise ishishini lokuhamba ngokukhawuleza. IBhunga leHlabathi lezoKhenketho noKhenketho likuvezile oko Umzi-mveliso wokundwendwela waseIndiya wenza igalelo elinamanani amabini kuqoqosho kwaye inike i-India indawo yesithathu kushishino lokhenketho nokhenketho.

Inkulu India I-Visa yezonyango yaseIndiya Icandelo lokhenketho kulindeleke ukuba lifumane ukukhula kwisantya sonyaka esingama-30%. Abakhenkethi baseIndiya banakho rhoqo kwaye uninzi lokuchaphazeleka zizifo ezibangelwa ngamanzi (Ukubaleka, umkhuhlane we-enteric, intsholongwane enkulu yentsholongwane), izifo ezinxulumene namanzi (umkhuhlane wehlathi, udenga, isifo sokuqaqamba kwamalungu omzimba waseJapan), isifo se-zoonotic (isifo esingumhlaza) Ukungeniswa kwezifo ezinokuthintelwa kuthintelwe kuthathwa njengengumba obaluleke kakhulu onxulumene nokuhamba. Inoculation yeendwendwe ze-Visa yaseIndiya inokusindisa ubomi kwaye isisiseko sokuphila kakuhle ngexesha lolonwabo okanye uhambo lweshishini e-India.

I-WHO igxininisa ukuba wonke undwendwe eIndiya kufuneka axelelwe ngokupheleleyo malunga nezitofu zesiqhelo, eziguquguqukayo njengoko kubonisiwe yiminyaka yobudala bendwendwe lwaseIndiya, imbali yokugonya; ukugula okukhoyo, ubude, iimfuno ezisemthethweni zecandelo kwizizwe ezihanjelweyo, utyekelo lwendwendwe kunye neempawu zaseIndiya. Undwendwelo eIndiya kufuneka acebise noogqirha nakweyiphi na iiveki ezine ukuya kwezintandathu ngaphambi kokuba aye e-India ukuze kubekho ixesha eloneleyo lokufezekiswa kwezicwangciso zokugonya ezifanelekileyo.

I-Indian Visa Online (eVisa India) ihlala ihanjiswa ngeentsuku ezine zeshishini.

Izitofu zendlela

Nokuba uyaphi, iZiko loLawulo lweZifo (i-CDC) limisela ukufumana isantya esihle kugonyo oluqhelekileyo ngaphambi kokuya eIndiya. Abantu abadala baseMelika abafumana unyango oluqhelekileyo lonyango ngoku bakhoyo, kubandakanya imasisi-mumps-rubella (MMR), diphtheria-lockjaw pertussis, varicella (chickenpox) kunye nogonyo lwepoliyo. Qaphela ukuba nawuphina umntu ofumana i-anti-lockjaw antibody kufuneka naye afumane inkxaso-mali njengewotshi, okanye kungekudala kwimeko apho umntu lowo enzakele.

IZiko loLawulo lwezifo (i-CDC) longeza laqwalasele intsholongwane ebandayo yeli xesha lokudodobala komzimba wonke umntu okhulileyo ofanelekileyo ekufuneka efumene ngaphambi kokuba ahambe aye eIndiya.

I-WHO icebisa ezi zitofu zokundwendwela abahambela ukuya eIndiya (kanye njengokuba kunjalo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku ngeMasisi, iimpundu, kunye nezindululo zeRubella).

Isifo sokudumba esikhulayo kunye nokugonywa kwe-Lockjaw

Oku akuphezulu kangako kwimeko ukuba akukho sigameko senzekileyo esindwendwele kwiminyaka eli-10 edluleyo. Iimpawu ezikhoyo njengentlungu kwindawo yokungenisa kunye nefiva.

Ugonyo lweHepatitis A

I-Hepatitis A iya kuba sisifo esisibindi esinyangekayo esisasazeka phantsi kokutya kunye nesiselo kunye nokunxibelelana nolusu kulusu lomntu ongcolileyo. Ukutya ukutya okucocekileyo, okungahlanjwanga okanye okuphekiweyo, okanye ukusela itephu okanye amanzi amnandi, kuphakamisa umngcipheko wakho wokosulelwa yi-hepatitis A xa udlula kwiindawo ezithile zehlabathi.

Izizwe ezimbalwa - kubandakanya iCanada, Japan, New Zealand, Australia kunye neZizwe zaseNtshona Yurophu- zingcono ukulawula nokususwa kwehepatitis A. Ngayiphi na imeko, kubaphethe iVisa abakhenkethi baseIndiya kunye nalabo banqwenela ukuza eIndiya, iZiko loLawulo lwezifo. (CDC) yacebisa ukuba ingeniswe kwi-Hepatitis A ukuba ayenziwanga kwilizwe labo. Yintoni engathandekiyo kukuba ukufumana olu gonyo ngaphambi kwexesha lokuya eIndiya kufuna isixa esifanelekileyo sokwaziswa kwangoko. Inikwe kwiidosi ezimbini, zahlulwe zaza zahlukaniswa nesiqingatha sonyaka, ke kufuneka uneentsuku ezili-180 ukuba ugonyelwe i-Hepatitis A.

Ukusukela oko le ntsholongwane yanikezelwa kubo bonke abantu abazelwe ngokutsha eUnited States nakwamanye amazwe aphuhlileyo asentshona ukusukela ngo-2005, abantu abancinci baseIndiya abakhenketha eVisa banokuthi ngoku bagonyelwe isifo sehepatitis A.

Ugonyo lweHepatitis B

Okwangoku kucinga ukuba yinto eqhelekileyo kubabambisi beVisa baseIndiya. Olu gonyo lunikezelwa ngo-bor, kwiinyanga ezintathu ubudala kunye nakwiinyanga ezintandathu. Isicwangciso sexesha esikhawulezileyo siyafikeleleka njenge-inoculation edibeneyo kunye ne-Hepatitis A. Reaction zihlukile kwaye zithambile, zihlala ziintlungu zesifo sokuqaqanjelwa sisisu kunye nokuqaqanjelwa okuphakathi kwindawo yokungenisa. Izinga lokusinda kwiipesenti ezingama-95.

Unyango lwe-Cholera

Ikholera sisinye isigulo esisasazeka ngokutya kunye namanzi. Izinto eziphilayo ze-cholera microscopic ziyafumaneka kuyo yonke iIndiya. Ukuthatha uhambo lokuya kwiindawo ezithile zase-India kuthetha ukuba inkcazo inokwenzeka ngakumbi kunezinye, ngoko ke nokuba undwendwela indawo enesiqendu esiqhubekayo sithatha umngcipheko wakho wokunxibelelana nezinto ze-cholera microscopic.

Sela amanzi amaminerali, kwaye Khusela amanzi empompo eIndiya. Sisifo esingaqhelekanga kwaye iingcali zinokunyanga ngokundilisekileyo, nangona kunjalo ukufumana i-antibody kungabaluleka ngaphambi kokuhamba kwakho. Ikholera ibangela ukukhululeka okugqithisileyo kwamathumbu, eyenza ukuba izigulana zome ngokukhawuleza. Kwimeko yokuba zingafiki ngokukhawuleza kunyango lwezonyango, isifo sinokufa. Kuyo yonke le migca, kwisehlo apho ucinga ukundwendwela kwisiqwengana se-India ebesinesiqephu sekholera esiqhubekayo okanye esikude, olu gonyo lunyanzelekile.

Unyango lwethambo lepoal lomlomo (OPV)

Ukusukela ngeyoMqungu yowama-2014, le ntsholongwane iyimfuneko e-odolwe kuzo zonke iindwendwe zaseIndiya ezihambela iIndiya zivela eAfghanistan, Ethiopia, Israel, Kenya, Nigeria, Nigeria, Pakistan naseSomalia ukufumana i-OPV malunga kwiiveki ezintandathu ngaphambi kokubaleka e-India. I-OPV yonakalisa ngakumbi unyaka omnye ukusukela kumhla wombutho wayo. Olu luhlu lwesizwe ludlulela kumazwe amathathu abelwe i-WHO. Nawuphi na umntu okhulileyo ofumene ugonyo lwabantwana olumiselweyo nangona kunjalo akazange afumane mxhasi njengomntu okhulileyo kufuneka anikwe isahlulo esinye sokugonyelwa ipoliyo. Bonke abantwana kufuneka bahlaziywe kwimichiza yabo yepoliyo, kwaye nabaphi na abantu abadala abangazange balugqibe ulungiselelo logonyo kufuneka benze njalo ngaphambi kokufika eIndiya njengabakhenkethi.

Intsholongwane yeTyphoid

Umkhuhlane weTyphoid sisifo esiyingozi. I-anti-typhoid antibody imiselwe bonke abanini be-Visa abakhenkethi eIndiya, nokuba batyelele imimandla yasezidolophini kuphela. Olu gonyo ludubula kanye lunika i-70% yokuqinisekisa, ihlala ihleli isebenza iminyaka emibini ukuya kwemithathu. Iitheyibhile ngokongeza ziyafikeleleka kulawulo kwisisu esingenabantu abathathu ukuba sisebenze. Kuyo nayiphi na imeko, ukumiliselwa kusoloko kuchazwe apho kunokusabela okumbalwa. Intsholongwane kagonyo iyanqweneleka ngaphezulu kugonyo lomlomo kubantu abakhulelweyo nabakhuselekileyo.

Ugonyo lweVaricella

Olu gonyo lucebisile nakweyiphi na indwendwe yeVisa yaseIndiya kwindalo engaphezulu konyaka omnye. Kuyacetyiswa kwabo bangenalo ixesha elidlulileyo elizaliswe yirhashalala okanye uvavanyo lwegazi olubonisa ukungabinakho ukubonwa. Abantu abaninzi abamkeleyo zange babe nokuxhathisa kukubonisa ukunganyangeki xa bekuzama kwaye bengafuneki bazikhathaze ngogonyo. I-Varicella antibody ayifanelanga ukuba inikezwe abantu abakhulelweyo okanye abangakhuseliyo. I-antiic ye-varicella ngokufanayo imiselwe ukubamba i-Visa yeVisa abakhenkethi ende (abanqwenela ukuhlala e-India ngaphezulu kwenyanga e-1) okanye abo basemngciphekweni owahlukileyo.

I-Japan encephalitis Vaccine

Olu gonyo lujolise ekutsaleni ixesha elide (abo bazama ukuchitha ixesha elingaphezu kwenyanga eIndiya) IIndiya abakhenketha eVisa abakhenkethisa kwimimandla eneRussian okanye iindwendwe zaseIndiya ezinokuthi zithathe inxaxheba kwimisebenzi ebanzi engakhuselekanga yangaphandle kwimimandla yelizwe, ngakumbi ebusuku, ngexesha nje elifutshane lokuphuma .

Inkqubo yokufakwa inoculation kufuneka igqitywe nakweyiphi na imeko kwiintsuku ezisixhenxe ngaphambi kokungena eIndiya ukuze isebenze. Ezona mpendulo zaziwayo ziyi-migraines, ukuqaqanjelwa yimisipha, kunye nentlungu kunye nobumnandi kwindawo yokungenelela. Ayikhuthazeki into yokuba amanenekazi akhulelweyo kunye noomama abanyisayo.

Ugonyo lwe-Meningococcal

Olu gonyo lunikezelwa njengofakelo lodwa. Ugonyo olune lokudubula luwanika iminyaka emibini ukuya kwemithathu yokukhuseleka kubakhenkethi ababanjiweyo kunye neendwendwe.

Unyango lweMalariya

Ubungozi be-Malariya bufumaneka kwihlabathi lonke, ikakhulu kumazwe ashushu nasahluma. Zonke iindawo namazwe ase-India, ngaphandle kwalawo anyuke kakhulu, atyhile amatyala okugula kwamathumbu. IZiko loLawulo lweSifo (CDC) lithathela ingqalelo abo banelungelo lokundwendwela iVisa abakhenkethi eIndiya ukuba baqhube umngcipheko wokufumana usulelo lwamathumbu.

Isigulo sisasazeka ngokwenzakaliswa sisifo seengcongconi, ke ngoko ukuthatha amanyathelo okhuselo sisixhobo esikhulu sokugcina kude nesifo. Ukumboza ulusu, ukusebenzisa ibug repellent, ukusebenzisa iimpahla kunye nezixhobo eziphathwe ne-permethrin, kunye nokuphumla phantsi komnatha weengcongconi ngamanyathelo anokunceda ukunciphisa amathuba akho okuba ufumane iMalariya.

Akukho anti anti to Tallall MalariaNangona kunjalo iindwendwe zaseIndiya iVisa zingasithatha isisombululo esingalunganga kumayeza esifo seengcongconi kwindlela eya kwaye ngexesha lotyelelo lwaseIndiya. Ungasebenzisa i-cream cream, repellent ye-mbuyu kunye neetnhumist zeenkukhu ukuze uzikhusele kwesi sifo.

Ugonyo lweRabies

Iigciwane sisifo esosulelayo esiyintsholongwane. I ukugula akuqhelekanga eIndiya Iindwendwe zeVisa, ukanti ingozi iyanda ngokuhamba kwexesha kwaye yandisiwe kwaye naluphi na amathuba ekunxibelelaneni izilwanyana. I-antibody icetyiswa ukuba ibambe i-Visa yabakhenkethi e-India abanqwenela ukuvavanya ngaphandle.

Iindwendwe zeVisa zaseNdiya zisengozini enkulu yenja okanye zokulunywa zizinambuzane (abagqirha bezilwanyana kunye nabaphathi bezilwanyana), iindwendwe ezinde zaseIndiya eziVisa ezibandakanya naluphi na umthambo ezinokuthi ziwenze zihlangane ngqo nezilwanyana. Abantwana bathathelwa ingqalelo kunobungozi obuphezulu kuba bayakudlala ngokubanzi izilwanyana, banokufumana ii-chomps ezinzima, okanye bangaxeli.

Ukulunywa sisilo / inja kubonisa uninzi lwezifo ezinomgada eIndiya, ngelixa amabhubhu evela kumalinge, amahlosi, iinkamela, kunye ne-civet yaseIndiya ngokungaphezulu inokuhambisa isifo. Nasiphi na isidalwa esityhutyha okanye isikripthi kufuneka sicocwe ngokupheleleyo ngamanzi acocayo namanzi, kwaye iingcaphephe ezikufutshane zokuphila kufuneka zifikeleleke ngokukhawuleza kunyango olunokuvela emva kokuba unikezele ubungqina bokuba umntu lowo ugonyiwe emarabi. Ulungiselelo lwangaphambi kokungeniswa lubandakanya imithamo emi-3 ethe yangeniswa kwimisipha ebolileyo kwiintsuku Zero, Iintsuku ezisixhenxe, Iintsuku ezingamashumi amabini ananye kunye noMhla wamashumi amabini anesibhozo.

KUFUNEKA ufumane isitofu sokugonyela isifo seentsholongwane ukuba silunywe yinja eIndiya.

I-yellow fever (YF) Ugonyo

Amazwe amaninzi afuna 'uqinisekiso lwehlabathi lwe-inoculation okanye i-prophylaxis' ephawulwe ngumthengisi weklinikhi wokugonywa kwe-YF yababambisi beVisa abakhenkethi baseIndiya abavela kwingingqi engcolisekileyo. Izikhokelo zokuziphatha kakuhle zaseIndiya zinokucela ubungqina bolwelo lweYellow fever (YF) kwimeko xa lowo ubonayo evela e-Afrika okanye eMzantsi Melika okanye kwenye imimandla ye-Yellow fever (YF). Ubungqina bokungenwa buza kufuneka kwimeko apho umntu etyelele isizwe kwi Indawo ye-YF ngaphakathi kweentsuku ezintandathu ngaphambi kokungena eIndiya . Nawuphi na umntu (ngaphandle kwabantwana ukuya kutsho kwiinyanga ezintandathu ubudala) ukuboniswa ngaphandle kokufumana ubungqina okanye ubungqina ukuba utyelele ngaphakathi kweentsuku ezintandathu zokungena eIndiya, okanye uhambe kwindawo enetayile, okanye ubonise inqanawa yokuhamba ngenqanawa eqala ukusuka okanye onxibelelana naye kulo naliphi na izibuko kwindawo enobungozi bokuhanjiswa kwe-YF ukuya kwiintsuku ezingama-XNUMX ngaphambi kokuvela kwayo eIndiya, ngaphandle kokuba isikhephe eso sihlanjululwe emva kwendlela emiselweyo yi-WHO siya kubanjwa ixesha elingangeentsuku ezintandathu.

Ugonyo lwe-yellow fever (YF) kufuneka lulawulwe kwindawo ekugxilwe kuyo yogonyo lweYellow fever (YF), eya kuthi inike wonke umntu ugonyo isiQinisekiso soThintelo sehlabathi jikelele. Ugonyo lwe-YF akufuneki ukuba lubonelelwe abo bangaphantsi kweenyanga ezisithoba ubudala, bekhulelwe, begonywa, okanye bechaphazeleka ngamaqanda. Ngokufanayo akufuneki ukuba inikezwe abo banemvelaphi ephawulwe sisifo se-thymus okanye i-thymectomy. Ugonyo alucetyiswanga okanye aludingeki kubanikazi beVisa abakhenketha eIndiya abavela eMelika, e-Europe, e-Australia, okanye kwamanye amazwe ase-Asia.

Nokuba ungaya ngaphi eIndiya, umntu kufuneka aqonde ukuba ukuboniswa kweentsholongwane ezithile kunokubangela isifo esibi. Akukho kungathandabuzeki ukuba ii-antibodies ziye zanciphisa okanye zalahla izifo ezininzi ezikhubaza kakhulu abantwana kunye nabantu abadala kwiminyaka embalwa edlulileyo. Kule migca, Abanini beVisa abakhenkethi eIndiya kufuneka bathathe ii-antibodies ezimiselweyo kwisicwangciso ngasinye ngaphambi kokuba benze uhambo oluya e-India.


Qinisekisa ukuba ujongile ukulungelwa kwe-eVisa yakho yaseIndiya.

Abemi baseMelika, Abemi baseUnited Kingdom, Abemi baseCanada kwaye Abemi baseFrance unako Faka isicelo kwi-Intanethi eIndiya.

Nceda ufake isicelo seVisa yaseIndiya kwiintsuku ezingama-4 ukuya kweli-7 ngaphambi kokuba ubhabhe.